Validating all measures using confirmatory factor

The validity of standardized instruments must be established through repeated application of scales in different contexts and among different population groups.Leonard-Barton's Voluntary Simplicity Lifestyle Scale was administered to a sample of California and Colorado voters.Using a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approaches, this research replicates a family communication measure, which consists of two dimensions, namely socio- oriented and concept-oriented family communication.The measures are commonly used in consumer socialization research and are replicated in an eastern cultural background.Initially, an exploratory factor analysis (N=956) evaluated two solutions, ranging from 1 to 2 factors.Next, a confirmatory factor analyses, using the sample (N=956), examined the two–factor model identified by the exploratory factor analysis.

I learnt that when you create a model composed by factors (and items), you should use EFA as a first validation to know if your theoretical model is correct.

And that you use CFA after a preliminary EFA with other sample or even during the EFA if you would like to test fit parameters.

However, journals ask me more often to use CFA as a first step of the validation process although it's the first application of the model.

In Korean Medicine (KM) and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), pathologic pattern identification is a very important diagnostic tool for KM or TCM doctors to evaluate a patient’s health status and to decide clinical interventions.

Pattern, which is a subcategory of a disease or a disorder, is defined as a diagnostic conclusion based on the pathological changes closely observed and holistically analyzed and may include a variety of information such as causes, locations, and properties of disorders or diseases [1, 2].


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